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Author Guidelines

1. Article Types

APGHN requires authors to select the article type description which corresponds with the submitted articles. There are different word limits for each article type (see below).

Article types

Word limit

Number of tables/figures

Original research

3000 words


Brief Report

1500 words 3

Case report

2000 words


Review articles

2000 words


Systematic review

3000 words



1500 words


Original research

Original research articles encompass the results from original, unpublished clinical studies. The maximum amount of references accepted is 40. Please carefully select only the most important, relevant, and latest references in your articles. Original research must include abstract, introduction, materials and methods (with clearly defined statistical method), results, and discussions. Please attached the relevant checklists as supplementary materials (i.e. CONSORT for randomized controlled trials, STROBE for observational studies, STARD for study for diagnostic accuracy, etc).

Brief reports

Brief reports are a small-scale research, often includes pilot studies or research with small sample sizes. Brief reports follow similar format as original research articles.

Case reports

Case reports feature unique cases with rare or unexpected diagnosis, treatment course, or clinical outcome. Authors of case reports are recommended to follow the CARE guidelines and submit the completed checklist as supplementary file for faster reviewing. The informed consent from the patients for publication must be attached with the submission. Make sure that the patient’s information is not included in the submitted manuscript. APGHN only publish case reports that have significant findings to the field. Case reports must be included in the title with the format: “Title name” – a case report. If more than one cases are included, please change the term to “case series.” The format for case reports are background and/or purpose of writing this case report, the case descriptions, discussions, and conclusions.

Review articles

Review articles highlights recent findings of existing literature. Authors may include evidence-based review based on selected articles which covers significant development in the area. The format for review articles include abstract, introduction, controversies or knowledge gap ensued and the basic concepts, issues, or problems in the existing conditions, as well as discussions of the findings.

Systematic review

Systematic reviews address a clearly defined research question through in-depth, critically-appraised, systematic analysis on a specific topic. Please refer to PRISMA/Cochrane/Campbell guidelines for general systematic review or meta analysis or MOOSE for meta analysis of observational studies for recommended reporting format. The format for systematic review articles are abstract, introduction, methods (including the study designs, study participants, the interventions, comparator, the search strategies and data sources, methods of extraction and analysis), results (flow diagram of studies selection, the chosen studies characteristics and findings, and risk of bias), and discussions. Systematic reviews must be included in the title with the format: “Title name” – systematic review/meta-analysis (as appropriate).


Commentary includes specific comment on published articles in APGHN and letter to editors. This type of articles must not include any unpublished data. The accepted format for commentary are introduction, proposed argument/comments, and discussions. The title must follow the format: “Commentary/Letter to Editor (as appropriate): title name.”


First submission to APGHN must include the following files:

Cover letter

Explanation on the reason your paper should be published in APGHN. Please direct your cover letter to Editor in Chief of Archived of Pediatrics Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition

Title page

Includes the full title (maximum 250 characters), running title (maximum 50 characters), authors, affiliation, conflict of interest, research funding, and consent for publication (for case reports). Author(s)’ correspondence including complete address, telephone number, and e-mail address must be included at the end of the title page.

Manuscript including tables and figures

Please make sure that the submitted tables and figures were of high quality. The accepted extensions for tables and figures are listed in more details in the next section. Please upload separate files for the tables and images.


The word limit for all abstracts are 200 words. The format for the abstract for original research articles is background and/or purpose of study, study design, results, and conclusions. Abstracts for case reports include background, short case descriptions, discussions, and conclusions.


Keywords must be included after the abstract and should contain a list of keywords not listed in the title. A maximum of six keywords are allowed.

Unit of measurement

All laboratory values and/or unit of measurements should be described according to the International System of Unit (SI Units) and in metrics. SI Units should be written before mass (in metrics) written in brackets. Conversion tables can be seen in JAMA 1986 May 2;255(17):2329-39 or Ann Intern Med 1987 Jan;106(1):114-29.

Drug nomenclatures

Drugs may be described both in United States Adopted Name (USAN) and in International Nonproprietary Name (INN) nomenclatures. At every first mention of the drug, a USAN citation should be used followed by an INN citation in brackets. Subsequent mentions of drugs should only be written in USAN nomenclature.


Complex or lengthy limitations that are mentioned repeatedly in the manuscript may be abbreviated. Author(s) should make a list of special abbreviations and attach them in the manuscript. Abbreviations are written in brackets and should appear once in the abstract and at the first mention in the manuscript.

Consent and permission to use

A written permission from patients, parents or guardians is required if any photo of the patient is used in the manuscript. Patient initials may not be used in the manuscript, tables, or figures. Author(s) must mention permission to use from original owner(s) for any utilization of direct quotes, tables and illustrations that have been published under copyright.

Conflict of Interest

Author(s) must write any potential, real or future Conflict(s) of Interest (COI), particularly with regards to financial support (research grants received, trustee membership and shareholding(s)) with pharmaceutical companies whose product(s) are discussed in the article. Trade names of drugs and other products must not appear in the article title. Trade names may only appear once in the abstract and once in the introduction or research methodology. In other sections of the manuscript, the author(s) should only use generic names. Should there be no COI, the author(s) must state “None declared.” in the manuscript


Substantive contributions of individuals should be noted in ‘Acknowledgements’ before the COI statement.

Funding acknowledgements

Details of all funding sources for the work in question should be written in this section. Multiple grant numbers should be separated by a comma. Multiple funding agencies should be separated by a semi-colon. Funding from individuals must be specified and added after the relevant agency or grant number. Should the study not receive any funding, the author(s) must state “The author(s) received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.” in the manuscript

Figures, tables, and illustrations

All figures, tables, and illustrations must be typed and/or attached in a separate page from the manuscript. A separate typewritten list of legends of all figures must be supplied and included in the text file separate from the main manuscript. Description of the symbols used in any illustrations or figures must be written out in full. Should figures or illustrations be downsized, a scale of the original should be included in the legend unless already indicated. All labels used in figures or illustrations should be in lower case in both the figures and legends.


Electronic submission of figures should be saved in TIFF/JPG/JPEG/PNG/PDG format. To ensure a high quality, crisps images in the published article, a minimum of 300 dpi are recommended for submission.


Each table should include an appropriate title and explanatory footnote below and numbered in sequence using Arabic numerals. Wherever possible, tables should be submitted in portrait, as opposed to landscape, layout


Each illustration should include an appropriate title and explanatory footnote below and numbered in sequence using Arabic numerals. Line drawings should be clear. Any histologic images must contain scale and details of the degree of magnification applied


References used in the manuscript should be typed in a separate page from the main manuscript. References cited should be numbered consecutively (with superscripts) by Arabic numerals in the order they first appear in the text. References in tables and legends must be identified with Arabic numerals in superscript. Please ensure that every numbered reference in the text appears in the reference list, and vice versa. Please refer to the following referencing format below:

Standard journal article

Add et al when six or more authors are involved

Include DOI for each article cited from a journal

Single author

Mizock BA. Alterations in fuel metabolism in critical illness: hyperglycaemia. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 2001;15:533–51.

Six or more authors

Nussbaum C, Gloning A, Pruenster M, Frommhold D, Bierschenk S, Genzel-Boroviczeny O, et al. Neutrophil and endothelial adhesive function during human fetal ontogeny. J Leukoc Biol. 2013;93:175–84.

Volume(s) with supplement(s)

Geraud G, Spierings EL, Keywood C. Tolerability and safety of frovatriptan with short- and long-term use for treatment of migraine and in comparison with sumatriptan. Headache 2002;42 Suppl 2:S93-9.

Corporate author

Committee on Drugs, American Academy of Pediatrics. The transfer of drugs and other chemicals into human breast milk. Pediatrics 1983;72:375-83.

Chapter in book

Dooley JM, Gordon KE. Headache in childhood. In: Feldman W, editor. Evidence-based pediatrics. Hamilton: BC Decker; 2000. p. 243-65.

Book or monograph

Armitage P, Berry G, Matthews GNS. Statistical methods in medical research. Massachussets: Blackwell Publ; 2002.

Seminar or conference

Harnden P, Joffe JK, Jones WG, editors. Germ cell tumours V. Proceedings of the 5th Germ Cell Tumour Conference; 2001 Sep 13-15; Leeds, UK. New York: Springer; 2002.

In press paper

Sebodo T. Response of plasma and yeast-derived hepatitis vaccines in children. Paediatr Indones. In press 2002.

Thesis or dissertation

Borkowski MM. Infant sleep and feeding: a telephone survey of Hispanic Americans [dissertation]. Mount Pleasant (MI): Central Michigan University; 2002.

Electronic materials

American Medical Association [homepage on the Internet]. Chicago: The Association; c1995-2002 [updated 2001 Aug23; cited 2002 Aug 12]. AMA Office of Group Practice Liaison; [about 2 screens]. Available from: ama/pub/category/1736.html.

Submission Preparation Checklist

All submissions must meet the following requirements.

  • The submission has not been previously published, nor is it before another journal for consideration (or an explanation has been provided in Comments to the Editor).
  • The text adheres to the stylistic and bibliographic requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines.
  • The submission file is in OpenOffice, Microsoft Word, or PDF file format.


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  1. Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License that allows others to remix, adapt, build upon the work non-commercially with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
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